Rhinella marina

Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Names

Marine Toad (English), Agua Toad, Giant Toad, Cane Toad

Languages: English

Ecology and Distribution


This species has been introduced to the Philippines and has invaded all major and many smaller islands throughout the country.

Author(s): Siler, Cameron
Rights holder(s): Siler, Cameron

Faunal Affinity

This invasive species is found in all major faunal regions in the Philippines as well as many small island groups and islolated islets.

Author(s): Siler, Cameron
Rights holder(s): Siler, Cameron


Although this species is exceptionally common in disturbed habitats, agriculatural lands (including rice fields), and residential habitat, observations have also been made of this species in distrubed, lowland forest.

Author(s): Siler, Cameron
Rights holder(s): Siler, Cameron


  • Rana marina Linnaeus, 1758 (synonym)
  • Rhinella marina Chaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007 (synonym)
  • Rhinella marinus Pramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008 (synonym)


Afuang, L. E. (1994).  Population ecology and distribution of Bufo marinus in the province of Isabela, Philippines. Unpublished Masters Thesis. Laguna: University of the Philippines at Los Banos.
Brown, R. M., & Diesmos A. C. (2002).  Application of lineage-based species concepts to oceanic island frog populations: the effects of differing taxonomic philosophies on the estimation of Philippine biodiversity. The Silliman Journal. 42(1), 133-162.
Letnic, M., Webb J., & SHINE R. (2008).  Invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) cause mass mortality of freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni) in tropical Australia. Biological Conservation. 141, 1773–1782.